1. What is your occupation ?

Electrical Engineer.

2. Where are you employed ?

At Professional Audio Laboratories, a one man consulting firm located at Park Ridge, New Jersey.

3. What is your area of expertise ?

The examination, enhancement, duplication, and presentation of audio and video tape-recorded evidence.

4. How long have you been so employed ?

For 35 years.

5. What is your educational background ?

Bachelor's and Master's Degrees granted by C.C.N.Y., The College of the City of New York, as well as having taught at seminars sponsored by Bell Telephone Laboratories and M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratories in the area of enhancement of signals in the presence of noise. Have lectured to federal law enforcement from coast to coast on the proper use of tape-recorded evidence.

6. Are you a member of any professional societies or organizations ?

Member of I.E.E.E. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), S.B.E. (Society of Broadcast Engineers), Audio Engineering Society and Board Certified by the American Board of Forensic Examiners.

7. Have you published any technical articles in your area of expertise ?

Have written approximately 25 technical articles concerning the enhancement of signals in the presence of noise for a contract with the U.S. Department of Defense, as well as a booklet entitled "A Prosecutor's Guide to the Use of Audio Taped Evidentiary Material" as well as "An Agent's Guide To the Use of Audio Taped Evidentiary Material" for law enforcement. I've also written an article scheduled for publication in the National Law Journal this month on tape-recorded evidence.

My article "Recorded Evidence for Prosecutors" was published in the June 2009 issue of Prorsecutor magazine. Private Investigator magazine designated my article "Recorded Evidence for Private Investigators" as the cover article in the September 2009 issue.

8. Have you participated in any professional seminars?

Yes, I have lectured for federal technical agents at the National Technical Investigators' Association national meeting in Orlando, and I have lectured assistant United States Attorneys and agents in Florida, California, Texas and New Jersey.

9. By whom have you been employed ?

Have been employed by virtually all Federal investigative agencies including F.B.I., D.E.A., Customs, A.T.F., S.E.C., Coast Guard, I.R.S., I.N.S., A.T.F., the intelligence community, as well as various state and local law enforcement agencies, in addition to numerous civil litigants in cases where there is tape-recorded evidence.

10. In how many cases have you participated?

In well over 1,750 cases involving audio and videotapes over the past 35 years.

11. Have you been Court-qualified to testify as an expert in the area of audio and video-taped evidence ?

Yes, on approximately 175 occasions in 28 Federal districts as well as in Canada.

12. How many tapes have you examined, enhanced, presented in various cases over the past 33 years ?

Many thousands of audio and videotapes of all types.

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